Scientists discover distribution and physiological role of plant disease – sciencedaily

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Witchcraft (Striga spp.) And broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) Are root parasitic weeds that inflict significant losses on world agriculture. Being obligate parasitic flowering plants in nature, they parasitize other autotrophic plants of agricultural importance. Plants are attached to their host by means of haustoria, which transfer nutrients from the host to the parasite. Weeds reduce crop yields by competing for resources (nutrients, water and photosynthetically active radiation), through allelopathic effects, and they reduce the quality of food, feed and fiber.

According to a review by Chris Parker; Based on rigorous sampling, there are no reliable global figures for the total area affected by Orobanche or Striga. However, around 16 million hectares were “at risk” of an Orobanche attack in the Mediterranean and Western Asia region. The corresponding figure for Striga in Africa was 44 million hectares, while the total loss of income from maize, millet and sorghum amounts to nearly $ 2.9 billion. More recent figures suggest that 50 million hectares and 300 million farmers are affected by Striga species in Africa, with losses amounting to USD 7 billion.

Parasitic weeds are difficult to control because they are obligate pests. One potential method of control is the use of growth modulators which are specific to parasitic root weeds. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that occur during the life cycles of root parasitic weeds is crucial in identifying specific growth modulator targets.

The metabolism of plant disease (a storage carbohydrate) is a possible target for the control of root parasitic weeds. In previous research, Associate Professor Atsushi Okazawa and colleagues found that plant metabolism is activated upon perception of strigolactones (a class of plant hormones that stimulate plant branching and the growth of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) in them. germinating seeds of Orobanche minor. Nojirimycin (a potent glycosidase inhibitor) inhibited plantose metabolism and impaired germination of Orobanche minor seeds, indicating that plantose metabolism is a possible target for control of parasitic root weeds.

In a more recent study, this team of scientists, based at Osaka Prefecture University, investigated the activities of α-galactosidases (AGAL) during the germination of Orobanche minor seeds. They also studied the planted distribution in dry seeds using laser desorption / matrix-assisted ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

Plantosis has been found in the tissues surrounding the embryo but not inside, indicating that it may act as a storage carbohydrate. Biochemical experiments and molecular characterization of a member of the α-galactosidase family, OmAGAL2, indicated that the enzyme is involved in the hydrolysis planted in the apoplast around the embryo after the perception of strigolactones to provide to the embryo hexoses essential for germination. These results indicated that OmAGAL2 is a potential molecular target for the control of root parasitic weeds.

The mass spectrometry images obtained for two fragment ions were almost identical, indicating that these fragment ions were all generated from a single source, the plant. The authors also provided visual aids demonstrating that plant infestation is distributed into the endosperm, perisperm, and seed coat of dry Orobanche minor seeds, coinciding with its role as a storage carbohydrate.

In summary, the discovery of this study elucidates that (i) the plantrose is distributed in the dry seeds of Orobanche minor and its physiological role is elusive, (ii) during the germination of the seeds of root-parasitic weeds, the plantrose is rapidly hydrolyzed after perception of strigolactones (SL), indicating its role as a storage carbohydrate (iii) the tissues surrounding the embryo, namely the endosperm, perisperm and integument, play a role in providing nutrients to parasitic root weeds. Moreover, the novelty of this study lies in the fact that; for the first time, the authors visualized the distribution of storage carbohydrate (plant infection) in the seeds of a root parasitic weed.

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Materials provided by Osaka Prefecture University. Note: Content can be changed for style and length.

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